Galastop contains ergoline derivative with a potent, selective and long-lasting inhibitory effect on prolactin secretion. Prolactin is the key hormone for lactogenesis and for the initiation and maintenance of lactation after parturition. Furthermore the aetiology of false pregnancy is currently thought to be mediated by rising prolactin levels stimulated by falling progesterone levels during the course of metoestrus. Galastop is used for the treatment of false pregnancy in bitches Inhibition of prolactin secretion by cabergoline results in a rapid resolution of the signs of false pregnancy, including lactation and behavioural changes. Suppression of lactation in bitches Suppression of lactation in the bitch may be required under certain clinical circumstances (for example following removal of puppies soon after birth, or following early weaning). Inhibition of prolactin secretion by Galastop results in a rapid cessation of lactation and a reduction in the size of the mammary glands.
Galastop contains the active ingredient cabergoline is available in the following strengths: 7ml Galastop and 15ml Galastop
A Veterinary Pet Prescription is required for Galastop
100mg Gabapentin is a GABA analog. It was originally developed to treat epilepsy, and currently is used to relieve neuropathic pain. The use of gabapentin in dogs is primarily to manage chronic nerve pain, with mild effectiveness managing seizures.
As with human use, the mechanism that allows the medication to work is not well understood, however, while it is structurally similar to the neurotransmitter GABA, it does not negatively affect its function.
Gabapentin contains the active ingredient Gabapentin and is available in the following strengths: 100mg Gabapentin
A Veterinary Pet Prescription is required for Gabapentin
What are Gastrogard syringes
Gastrogard contains the acive ingredient omeprazole. Gastrogard paste is licensed for the treament and prevention of gastric ulcers in horses. Gastrogard is a POM-V category medicine and is only available for purchase from an online vet pharmacy upon receipt of a valid veterinary prescription.
How does Gastrogard work?
Gastrogard is used for the treatment and prevention of stomach ulcers. Stomach ulcers develop when there is an errosion of the normal lining of the stomach. This can occur for a number of resons such as stress, particularly in young athletic horses or following transport, drug administration (such as Bute or Danilon), following a general anaesthetic or as a result of diseases such as kidney failure. Gastrogard contains omeprazole as an active ingredient. Omeprazole is known as a proton pump inhibitor and casues an increase in the pH of the stomach (reduced acidity). This prevents ulceration from occuring and allows stomach ulcers to heal.
What are the symtoms of stomach ulcers in horses?
Horses can show a variety of different symptoms as they develop ulcers. Some horses will have gastric ulceration but show no symptoms at all. Others will lose weight or show a reduced appetite. Some horses may demonstrate reduced performance competitively or show pain (e.g grunting or even aggressive behaviour) as the girth strap is placed. Sometimes vets will prescribe gastrogard to prevent ulcers from developing, e.g. before a long journey or prior to surgery.
How are gastric ulcers diagnosed?
Stomach ulcers can be suspected on the basis of clinical signs, activity and the signalement of the horse. The only way to definitively diagnose gastric ulceration is to directly visualise the ulcerated stomach. This is done using a procedure known as gastroscopy, when a camera (flexible endoscope) is passed into the horse's stomach via the nostrol, usually under sedation. This gives the vet the opportunity to collect biopsies from the stomach lining in order to make a definitive diagnosis.
A Veterinary Pet Prescription is Required for GastroGard
Hypercard for Cats (10mg) is indicated for the therapeutic treatment of feline primary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Hypercard is a benzothiazepine derivative which acts as a calcium channel blocker and exerts its effect by selectively inhibiting the inward movement of calcium ions across the cell membrane into vascular smooth muscle cells and myocardial cells.
Hypercard contains the active ingredient Diltiazem and is available in the following strengths: 10mg Hypercard
A Veterinary Pet Prescription is required for Hypercard
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or HCM is a type of heart disease, and is the most commonly diagnosed acquired heart problem in cats. The condition occurs when the muscles of the heart’s ventricles become much thicker than normal, affecting the left side of the heart particularly and impairing the normal function of the heart as a whole.
If you are concerned about your cat’s heart health, or your vet has given your cat a diagnosis of feline primary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, it is important to learn about the basics of the condition, why it occurs, and what can be done to treat and manage it.
Are certain types of cat predisposed to HCM?
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is thought to be hereditary, and a mutation that leads to the condition has been found within both the Ragdoll and the Maine Coon cat gene pools. Some other pedigree breeds including the Persian and several oriental breeds also seem to produce more than their fair share of affected cats, although the simple domestic moggy remains the most likely type of cat to be affected with the condition.
The condition is usually not diagnosed until the cat is mature or elderly, although it can sometimes be identified below the age of five in affected cats.
What are the symptoms of feline primary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
HCM can be a difficult condition for the cat owner to identify, as the symptoms of the condition may be very mild in the earlier stages. Added to this, cats are very good at masking pain and discomfort, and until the condition becomes particularly pronounced, it may not be apparent that anything is amiss.
Some of the potential symptoms of the condition include:
How is HCM diagnosed?
If you have any concerns about your cat’s heart health, you will need to take them along to the vet for a thorough investigation. Your vet will use a stethoscope to listen to your cat’s heart, listening out for signs such as a heart murmur, fast heart rate and gallop rhythm that will all require further investigation.
It is then likely that your vet will need to perform an echocardiogram and potentially, radiograph to get a full picture of your cat’s heart health. This may be performed in your usual clinic, or your vet may wish to ask a specialist veterinary cardiologist to take a look.
Can feline primary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy be treated?
The damage and changes to the heart that occur with the thickening of the ventricles cannot be reversed or corrected, but in some cases if the thickening is caused as a side effect of another condition, such as hyperthyroidism, treating the underlying condition can in some cases partially resolve the thickening.
The hypertrophy itself affects the left ventricle’s ability to fully relax, which is necessary for normal functioning, and so your vet may prescribe medications such as Hypercard or Cardisure to help the left ventricle to relax normally. This can help to regulate and improve the function of the heart, easing discomfort and improving your cat’s quality of life.
Your vet will also likely instruct you on how to monitor your cat’s condition at home, and what changes or problems to look out for as part of the condition. Very laboured breathing or paralysis of the front or rear legs indicate a serious upswing in the problem, and will require urgent veterinary treatment to give your cat the best chance of survival.
What is the prognosis for cats with feline primary hypertrophic cardiomyopathy?
The prognosis for any given cat will largely depend on factors such as the age of the cat, how old they are when they are diagnosed, how advanced the condition is, and how well they respond to treatment. In some cats, the normal function of the heart will only be lightly affected, and may continue for many years without worsening, while in others, the condition may be very acute, or progress very quickly.
Cats with HCM may feasibly be able to live a relatively normal life for many years after diagnosis, however, in a significant amount of cases, the condition ultimately proves fatal in just two years or less.
One serious potential complication of HCS is thromboembolism, a condition that occurs when a blood clot is formed that obstructs the normal circulation of the blood throughout the body. This can lead to sudden paralysis, particularly of the hind limbs, and often, cannot be corrected and proves fatal.
However, if a problem is promptly identified, medications may be able to thin the blood and break down the clot, averting a potential fatality. Unfortunately, it can be difficult to identify and treat a clot in time to save the cat, and cats that have successfully survived one clot are exponentially more likely to develop additional clots at some stage in the future.
Incurin is used for the treatment of hormone-dependent urinary incontinence resulting from sphincter mechanism incompetence (SMI) in spayed bitches. As the sensitivity of incontinent dogs to estriol is variable, the dose has to be determined on an individual basis. The majority of bitches involved in studies responded positively: they became continent, and remained that way in the long term. The results show that Incurin is efficient and safe to use against urinary incontinence due to SMI in spayed dogs.
Incurin contains the active ingredient Estriol and is available in the following strengths: 1mg Incurin
A Veterinary Pet Prescription is required for Incurin
Urinary incontinence is a condition that can affect any animal, and is often particularly common in cats and dogs. The root cause of urinary incontinence can be difficult to identify in the first instance, as a great many issues ranging from the medical to the behavioural may be at the root of the issue, and getting to the bottom of the problem is of course the key to effective treatment.
One form of urinary incontinence that can affect cats and dogs is known as hormone-dependent urinary incontinence, and this occurs because of a lack of the oestrogen hormone in female dogs, and testosterone in male dogs. Deficiencies such as these can occur for a range of reasons, which we will examine in more detail within this article.
Identifying hormone-dependent urinary incontinence
When dogs are house trained and cats are litter trained or taught to toilet outside, they will usually be very reluctant to toilet in other areas, and so incontinence or urinating within the home should be viewed as a problem in and of itself, as well as due to the obvious mess that it creates.
Toileting within the home, needing to urinate a lot or other problems with urination can have many different causes, and as well as various medical reasons for such problems, behavioural problems such as territorial marking or a lack of training can also cause the problem.
In healthy dogs and cats, the muscles of the urethra are strong enough to allow them to “hold it in” until they are able to go to the appropriate place to toilet, and hormone-dependent urinary incontinence presents itself due to a weakness of these muscles that make your pet unable to control when they go to the toilet.
If your cat or dog needs to urinate frequently, toilets inside of the house, or leaks urine when asleep or at rest, hormone-dependent urinary incontinence may be the problem.
What causes hormone-dependent urinary incontinence?
When your cat or dog is young, their body’s production of oestrogen (for females) and testosterone (for males) will not have fully developed, and these essential hormones are most commonly associated with reproduction, but they are also vital for other things too. Oestrogen or testosterone provide strength to the muscles of the bladder, and it is essential that your dog or cat is not spayed or neutered until the body has begun to produce sufficient quantities of these hormones to control their normal functions.
If a dog or cat is neutered when their hormone production has not yet reached its peak levels, the removal of the sex organs effectively halts their production, which is necessary to prevent unwanted breeding. However, early neutering may also cause problems such as hormone-dependent urinary incontinence, which can occur when the body has not yet produced enough of the necessary hormones to regulate other factors, such as bladder control.
Some dogs and cats will naturally have low levels of these hormones, whether they are neutered or not, which can again lead to hormone-dependent urinary incontinence. The condition can also occur as a side effect of conditions such as prostate disease, due to tumours of the bladder, and because of congenital genetic abnormalities. Additionally, a natural drop in oestrogen and testosterone also accompanies old age, and so incontinence is sometimes a side effect of aging.
What can be done about hormone-dependent urinary incontinence?
Your vet will need to run some basic tests on your pet to rule out other potential causes of incontinence, and they will also likely talk to you about your pet’s lifestyle and living situation to rule out behavioural reasons for inappropriate toileting.
Once the condition is diagnosed, treatment depends on the supplementary administration of synthetic hormones to correct the body’s low natural hormone levels, which will in turn help to correct the problem of the incontinence itself.
Oral medications such as Incurin or Urilin, which are given daily, are usually all that is needed to manage the condition. The cost of medications such as these can be broken down to just a few pence per day, and so the condition is not prohibitively expensive to manage in the long run.
Can hormone-dependent urinary incontinence be prevented?
Whether or not you can prevent your pet from ever developing a problem such as this largely depends on what causes the problem. Cancers and other systemic problems that lead to secondary complications such as hormone-dependent urinary incontinence cannot usually be prevented, but the condition may correct itself after the cancer is successfully treated.
For pets that have naturally low levels of oestrogen or testosterone, there is nothing that you can do to prevent or correct this naturally, and the problem will usually become apparent from a young age. Some dogs too in old age will produce less oestrogen or testosterone than they need, and again, this is not something that you can foresee or prevent.
However, hormone-dependent urinary incontinence that is caused by spaying or neutering too early can be prevented, by waiting until your cat or dog is fully sexually mature, and so has begun oestrogen or testosterone production before they are neutered.
Itrafungol is used for the treatment of ringworm in cats caused by Microsporum canis
Itrafungol contains the active ingredient itraconazole and is available in the following strengths: 52ml Itrafungol
Itrafungol is a yellow to slightly amber, clear oral solution containing 10 mg itraconazole per ml. Other ingredients include propylene glycol, sorbitol and caramel (E150). Itrafungol is administered orally, directly into the mouth by means of the enclosed graduated dosing syringe.
A Veterinary Pet Prescription is required for Itrafungol
Libromide is used as an anti-epileptic therapy adjunct to phenobarbital in refractory cases of epilepsy in dogs
Libromide contains the active ingredient 325mg Potassium bromide and is available in the following strengths: 325mg Libromide
A Veterinary Pet Prescription is required for Libromide
What is Loxicom?
Loxicom is known as a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (or NSAID) and is used as a painkiller. Loxicom oral suspension is available for dogs and cats and contains the active ingredient, Meloxicam. Loxicom injectable is available for dogs, cats, horses, cattle and pigs. Loxicom is known as a POM-V medicine, and as such is only available upon receipt of a veterinary prescription. Online animal pharmacies like us at Vetdispense are only able to dispense this medication once the document has been received.
How does Loxicom work?
Loxicom is part of a group of medicines known as NSAIDs. NSAIDs work through their inhibition of the cyclooxygenase enzymes. Cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) is responsible for many protective mechanisms within the body. For example, the COX-1 pathway is responsible for the maintenance of good kidney function, the protection of the gastrointestinal (stomach and intestinal) lining and blood clotting mechanisms. Loxicom selectively reduces the activity of cyclooxygenase – 2 (COX-2). It is COX-2 that is responsible for production of inflammatory mediators that contribute to pain, swelling, heat and discomfort. It is through the selective inhibition of the COX-2 enzyme that meloxicam drops can provide effective pain relief.
What is Loxicom used for?
Loxicom is used to treat inflammatory pain. In the vet clinic, we use loxicom to reduce pain following surgery, for example, following neutering or orthopaedic procedures. Loxicom suspension is also commonly used to treat animals that are suffering from musculo-skeletal conditions such as osteoarthritis. Arthritis is becoming increasingly recognised in both dogs and cats. Symptoms in dogs include a reluctance to jump, climb stairs or get into car boots. Dogs can also show reduced willingness to exercise, although many will seem to ‘warm into’ exercise. Often symptoms are most pronounced following prolonged periods of rest, e.g. first thing in the morning. Diagnosing cats with arthritis can often be more challenging since cats are quite adept at hiding the symptoms of pain. In the early stages, owners may only notice a reduced willingness to play or to jump up high. Later in the course of the disease, cats may show muscle wastage associated with the affected joint.
Loxicom is also commonly used in cases of soft-tissue injury, eg ligament or tendon sprain or strains. Often, a relatively short course of NSAIDs in combination with exercise modification or physiotherapy can make a big impact in terms of recovery time post-injury. Loxicom for dogs and cats has the potential to greatly improve the quality of life for animals suffering from painful, inflammatory conditions but should only be used according to veterinary advice. Loxicom suspension is only available on prescription and care must be taken to accurately dose pets. Serious and potentially life threatening side effects may follow if used inappropriately or at high doses.
How is Loxicom administered?
Loxicom may be administered by your vet in the form of a subcutaneous injection. This may then be followed with once daily dosing with the oral suspension. Loxicom chewable tablets for dogs are also now available.
Loxicom is available as Loxicom 0.5mg/ml oral suspension for cats, Loxicom 0.5mg/ml and 1.5mg/ml oral suspension for dogs, Loxicom 5mg/ml solution for injection for dogs and cats, loxicom 20mg/ml solution for injection in cattle, pigs and horses, and as loxicom chewable tablets: 1mg and 2.5mg.
A Veterinary Pet Prescription is Required for Loxicom
VET PRESCRIPTION REQUIRED